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Stalking Crimes & Victim Protection: Prevention, Intervention, Threat Assessment, and Case Management
Stalking Crimes & Victim Protection: Prevention, Intervention, Threat Assessment, and Case Management

Stalkers and Their victims
Stalkers and Their Victims

The Psychology of Stalking
The Psychology of Stalking

Stalking: Surviving the Hidden Terror
Stalking: Surviving the Hidden Terror

The Criminalisation of Stalking: Constructing the Problem and Evaluating the Solution
The Criminalisation of Stalking: Constructing the Problem and Evaluating the Solution

When is it stalking? Elements deemed necessary by young adults
When is it stalking? Elements deemed necessary by young adults

Research: Stalking

Brewster, Mary P. Needs of Former Intimate Stalking Victims. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice: Washington D.C. 1998.

This research study explores the nature of stalking experiences of former intimate victims. The study was based on interviews with 187 women in southeastern Pennsylvania who had been stalked by former intimates during the five years prior to the study.

Coleman, Frances L. "Stalking Behavior and the Cycle of Domestic Violence." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 57(1) (1997): 110-119.

This article examines the behavioral definition of stalking, investigates the role stalking plays in domestic violence, and develops demographic profiles of stalkers and their victims.

Commission on Family Violence. Stalking Curriculum: A Multidisciplinary Response. (Richmond, VA: Commission on Family Violence, 1996, under Grant No. 95-DD-BX-0060 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.)

This multidisciplinary approach to stalking covers responses from legal, law enforcement, and mental health professions and discusses victim safety. Each chapter offers concrete suggestions for appropriate and effective responses to stalking, as well as specific tools to carry out this work.

Davis, Joseph A. Stalking Crimes and Victim Protection: Prevention, Intervention, Threat Assessment, and Civil Management. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2001.

This book addresses stalking from multidisciplinary perspectives. Contributing authors include researchers, mental health practitioners, criminologists, academics, investigators, prosecutors, victim advocates, and security experts.

Fisher, Bonnie S., Cullen, Francis T. and Michael G. Turner. Sexual Victimization of College Women. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC. December 2000.

The study used a nationally representative sample of college women, assessed a range of potential sexual victimizations, measured sexual victimization, and examined how the risk of being victimized was affected by a range of variables. The extent of stalking victimization was one focal area of this study. Download in PDF format.

Full Faith and Credit Project of Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. An Advocate's Guide to Full Faith and Credit for Orders of Protection. (Produced in cooperation with the Violence Against Women Office, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, under Grant No. 96-VF-GX-K005.)

This full faith and credit guide is written for advocates who are assisting domestic violence victims in states, Indian tribes, and U.S. territories. The 24-page booklet, published in October 1999, provides guidance on myriad issues including the types of protection orders covered by VAWA, implementation procedures, responsibilities of law enforcement, prosecutors, and the courts, and federal crimes. Download in PDF format.

Jordan, Carol E., Quinn, Karen, Jordan, Bradley and Celia R. Daileader. "Stalking: Cultural, Clinical and Legal Considerations." Brandeis Law Journal 38 (1999-2000): 513-579.

This article examines the crime of stalking as a social and legal construction. The authors note that responses to stalking cannot be understood without acknowledgment of how stalking is conceptualized by popular portrayal of stalking in films and in literature.

McFarlane, J., Willson, P., Lemmey, D., & Malecha, A. (2000). Women Filing Assault Charges on an Intimate Partner: Criminal Justice Outcome and Future Violence Experienced. Violence Against Women, 6(4), 396-408.

The authors interviewed 90 women (aged 1959 years) with 6-month follow-up. In order to describe the criminal justice outcomes and violence experienced once women file assault charges against an intimate partner, questionnaires were administered at the time of filing charges, as well as at 3- and 6-month post-filing. The questionnaires measured threats of violence, physical assault, stalking, and danger. Results revealed that 48% of the women had insufficient evidence for charges. Of those making charges, 11% dropped charges. Furthermore, 37% of the perpetrators were arrested and 4% of perpetrators remained fugitives. With the exception of danger at 3 months, levels of violence did not differ by charges accepted or perpetrator arrested at 3 and 6 months. The study indicated that for this cohort of 90 women, filing assault charges against an intimate partner was a powerful deterrent to future violence, whether or not the charges were accepted or the offender was arrested.

Mullen, P. E., Pathe, M., Purcell, R., & Stuart, G. W. (1999). Study of Stalkers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(8), 1244-1249.

The authors described behaviors, motivations, and psychopathology of 145 stalkers who were referred to a forensic psychiatric center for treatment. The majority of the stalkers were men (79%). Many stalkers were unemployed (39%) and 52% had never been in an intimate relationship. Victims included ex-partners (30%), professional or work contacts (34%), and strangers (14%). Five types of stalkers are described: rejected, intimacy-seeking, incompetent, resentful, and predatory. Delusional disorders were common (30%), especially among intimacy-seeking stalkers, although those with personality disorders predominate among rejected stalkers. The duration of stalking behaviors ranged from 4 weeks to 20 years with the longest duration found among rejected and intimacy-seeking stalkers. Of the stalkers, 63% made threats and 36% were assaultive. Threats and property damage tended to be more frequent with resentful stalkers while rejected and predatory stalkers committed more assaults.

Mullen, Paul E., Pathe, Michele, and Rosemary Purcell. "Same-Gender Stalking." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 28 (2) (2000): 191-197.

This study reviews the literature on same-gender and presents findings from a clinical study of 29 same-gender stalking cases that were referred to a forensic psychiatry center.

Mustaine, E. E., & Tewksbury, R. (1999). A Routine Activity Theory Explanation for Women's Stalking Victimizations. Violence Against Women, 5(1), 43-62.

This article presents a routine activity theory model for predicting stalking victimization likelihood for women. Surveys administered to 861 university women in nine institutions were examined. Using routine activity theory, the model highlights lifestyle behaviors and interactions as predictors of stalking victimization. While routine activity theory typically highlights the role of demographics and status as predictors of victimization, this analysis emphasizes the role of women's social interactions and substance use in victimization risk. Significant predictors of victimization likelihood include substance use variables, activities in public settings, and residence off campus.

Myers, R. "Anti-Stalking Statutes." Crime Victims Report 2 (5) (1998): 67-79.

This article reviews current anti-stalking laws and evaluates the need for new or expanded laws. The article discusses several States' statutory protections, actions in response to first violation and subsequent violations, and notification statutes. It also examines mental health evaluations and treatment for stalkers, including court-ordered treatment or counseling.

Nicastro, Alana M., Cousins, Amber V. and Brian H. Spitzberg. "The Tactical Face of Stalking." Journal of Criminal Justice 28 (2000): 69-82.

This analysis of the nature of stalkers, stalking behaviors, and victims' coping methods used data from 55 stalking cases recorded in the files of the city attorney's domestic violence unit in San Diego, CA.

Palarea, R. E., Zona, M. A., Lane, J. C., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (1999). The Dangerous Nature of Intimate Relationship Stalking: Threats, Violence, and Associated Risk Factors. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 17(3), 269-283.

The authors compared 135 intimate and 88 non-intimate stalking cases managed by the Los Angeles Police Department's Threat Management Unit. Results indicate a significant relationship between the stalkers' intimate status and violence committed toward persons and property. The relationship was positively influenced by the suspect's proximity to the victim and threats toward the victim and property but was not influenced by suspect's criminal, psychiatric, and domestic violence history. Overall, intimate relationship stalkers used more dangerous stalking behaviors than non-intimate relationship stalkers. Risk factors for assessing dangerousness of stalkers are also discussed.

Pathe, M., & Mullen, P. E. (1997). The Impact of Stalkers on Their Victims. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 12-17.

This article examines the findings of a study which questioned 100 victims of stalking regarding their psychological, social, and interpersonal functioning as well as their level of risk for physical and sexual assault. Most victims experienced multiple forms of harassment including: being followed, repeatedly approached, and harassed either by mail or phone. Victims were stalked from 1 month to 20 years. Of those reporting stalking, 58 were threatened and 34 experienced physical or sexual assault. Most victims (n = 94) made major changes in their work and social lives, including changing or ceasing employment (53%) and moving back home (39%). Of the stalking victims, 83% reported increased anxiety, 55% experienced intrusive flashbacks, 37% met criteria for PTSD, and 24% acknowledged suicidal ideation. Respondents also reported appetite disturbances, depressed mood, and nightmares. Results indicate that persistent stalking results in social and psychological harm to victims. The authors also discuss the inadequacy of medical and legal response systems.

Riggs, Stacia, Romano, Molly, Starkweather, Jan and Betty Waaler. Domestic Stalking: Prevalence, Protection and Policies. (Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, Center for Public Policy Research, December 1997, for the Urban Institute.)

This report offers a synthesis of research on stalking. There is also a cost-benefit analysis for alternative strategies for protecting victims of stalking and recommendations for strengthening responses to stalking.

"Stalking and Obsessive Behaviors in Everyday Life: Assessments of Victims and Perpetrators." Violence and Victims 15 (1) (Spring 2000) and 15 (4) (Winter 2000).

This is a two-part series on stalking.

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000b). Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NCJ 183781). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

This report presents findings from the NVAW Survey on the prevalence and incidence of rape, physical assault, and stalking; the rate of injury among rape and physical assault victims; and injured victims' use of medical services. Among the many findings the authors indicate that: (1) 17.6% of all women surveyed said they had survived a completed or attempted rape at some time in their life, 54% of these women were under 18 when they were first raped. (2) 2.2% of men and 8.1% of women reported being stalked at some time in their life. (3) American Indian/Alaska Native women were significantly more likely than African American women, White women, or mixed-race women to report being raped. (4) Those women who reported they were raped prior to 18 years of age were twice as likely to report another rape as an adult. (5) Those women who reported that they were stalked prior to 18 were seven times more likely to indicate that they were stalked as an adult. (6) Women experience more intimate partner violence than men do. (7) 64.0 % of women vs. 16.2 % of men experience intimate partner violence (e.g., rape, physical assault, and/or stalking). (8) Women (31.5%) are much more likely than men (16.1%) to be injured during an assault. (9) When the perpetrator is a current or former intimate partner, the risk of injury to a woman increases. The authors discuss the findings in terms of their importance to intervention planners, policymakers, and legislators, as well as the criminal justice and public health communities. Download in PDF format

U.S. Department of Justice. Stalking and Domestic Violence: Report to Congress. U.S. Department of Justice: Washington, D.C., May 2001.

This fourth report to Congress by the U.S. Department of Justice examines cyberstalking, results from a national survey concerning law enforcement and prosecution response to stalking, and the needs of stalking victims. It also provides summaries of recent amendments to state stalking statutes (1998-2000 legislative sessions) and a review of case law on stalking. Download in PDF format

U.S. Department of Justice. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General: Washington, D.C. 1999.

This report examines cyberstalking, including the steps that law enforcement, industry, victim groups, and others are currently taking to address the problem, the adequacy of current Federal and State laws, and recommendations for what should be done to address the problem of cyberstalking. Online report (html).

U.S. Department of Justice. Stalking and Domestic Violence: The Third Annual Report to Congress Under the Violence Against Women Act. U.S. Department of Justice: Washington, D.C. 1998.

This third annual report to Congress by the Violence Against Women Grants Office, as mandated under the Violence Against Women Act, examines what is being done nationally to address stalking; the focus is on sentencing and supervision of convicted stalkers. Download in PDF format.

Wallace, H., and K. Kelty. "Stalking and Restraining Orders: A Legal and Psychological Perspective." Journal of Crime and Justice 18 (2) (1995): 99-111.

This article proposes a definition of stalking, reviews the various typologies of stalkers, and examines the advantages and disadvantages of using restraining orders in stalking cases.

Walsh, Keirsten L. "Safe at Last? Federalized Anti-Stalking Legislation in the United States and Canada." Dickinson Journal of International Law 14 (Winter 1996): 373-402.

This article presents an analysis of federal antistalking legislation in both Canada and the U.S. Included in the discussion are "credible threat" and "requisite level of fear" provisions.

Wattendorf, George. "Stalking Investigation Strategies." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2000): 10-14.

Wattendorf works with the Dover, NH Police Department's Anti Stalking Unit (ASU), which has developed innovative multidisciplinary approaches to stalking. In this article, he shares many of the investigative strategies that have been pursued by the ASU.

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Last Updated: May 12, 2011