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Cyberstalking
Cyberstakling



Courting Disaster : Intimate Stalking, Culture, and Criminal Justice
Courting Disaster : Intimate Stalking, Culture, and Criminal Justice



Stalking and Violence : New Patterns of Trauma and Obsession
Stalking and Violence : New Patterns of Trauma and Obsession



Stalking, Harassment and Murder in the Workplace
Stalking, Harassment and Murder in the Workplace



The Bogeymen: Stalking and Its Aftermath
The Bogeymen: Stalking and Its Aftermath



Obsession: Celebrities and Their Stalkers
Obsession: Celebrities and Their Stalkers



Unrequited Love: On Stalking And Being Stalked: a Story of Obsessive Passion
Unrequited Love: On Stalking And Being Stalked: a Story of Obsessive Passion



Stalking: Perspectives on Victims and Perpetrators
Stalking: Perspectives on Victims and Perpetrators

Stalking Statistics: Commonly Quoted



Source: Stalking in America: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, April 1998. The full report is available from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/169592.txt

A little over 1 million women and 370,000 men are stalked annually in the United States.

1 in 12 women and 1 in 45 men will be stalked in their lifetime.

77% of female and 64% of male victims know their stalker.

87% of stalkers are men.

59% of female victims and 30% of male victims are stalked by an intimate partner.

81% of women stalked by a current or former intimate partner are also physically assaulted by that partner. 31% of women stalked by a current or former intimate partner are also sexually assaulted by that partner. Intimate partners that stalk are four times more likely than intimate partners in the general population to physically assault their victims and six times more likely to sexually assault their victims.

73% of intimate partner stalkers verbally threaten the victims with physical violence, and almost 46% of victims experienced one or more violent incidents by the stalker.

The average duration of stalking is 1.8 years.

If stalking involves intimate partners, the average duration increases to 2.2 years.

61% of stalkers made unwanted phone calls; 33% sent or left unwanted letters or items; 29% vandalized property; and 9% killed or threatened to kill a family pet.

28% of female victims and 10% of male victims obtained a protective order. 69% of female victims and 81% of male victims had the protection order violated.

56% of women stalked took some type of self-protective measure; 11% included extreme measures such as relocating.

26% of stalking victims lost time from work as a result of their victimization, and 7% never returned to work.

30% of female victims and 20% of male victims sought psychological counseling.






Source: The Sexual Victimization of College Women. By Bonnie S. Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, and Michael G. Turner. National Institute of Justice, December 2000. Full report available at http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/182369.txt

13% of college women were stalked during a single six to nine month period.

80% of campus stalking victims know their stalkers.

3 in 10 college women reported emotional or psychological injury as a result of stalking episodes.

Fifteen percent of the time, the stalker threatened or attempted to harm the victim and 10 percent of the time, the stalker forced or attempted sexual contact.

Three of the correlating factors that increase the risk of a female being stalked on a college campus are spending time in bars; living alone; and being in the early phase of a dating relationship, as opposed to being married or living with an intimate partner.




McFarlane, Judith M. et al. "Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide." Homicide Studies 3 (4) (November 1999): 300-316.

76% of female murder victims had been stalked. 67% had been physically abused by their intimate partner.

89% of female murder victims who had been physically abused had also been stalked in the 12 months before the murder.

only 54% of these victims reported stalking to police before they were killed by their stalkers.






From: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice: "The Crime of Stalking: How Big Is the Problem?" by Patricia Tjaden. Published: November 1997

Stalking affects about 1.4 million victims annually (1 million women and 400,000 men)

About half of all female stalking victims reported their victimization to the police and about 25 percent obtained a restraining order

8 percent of women and 2 percent of men said they had been stalked at some point in their lives

the results projected 8.2 million female and 2 million male lifetime stalking victims, most of whom were stalked by only one stalker

Most victims knew their stalker. Women were significantly more likely to be stalked by an intimate partner--whether that partner was a current spouse, a former spouse or cohabiting partner, or a date. Only 21 percent of stalkers identified by female victims were strangers

men were significantly more likely to be stalked by a stranger or an acquaintance

About 87 percent of stalkers were men

Women tended to be victimized by lone stalkers, but in 50 percent of male victimizations the stalker had an accomplice--usually a friend or girlfriend

Most victims were between the ages of 18 and 29 when the stalking started

Stalkers made overt threats to about 45 percent of victims

Stalkers spied on or followed about 75 percent of victims

Stalkers vandalized the property of about 30 percent of victims

Stalkers threatened to kill or killed the pet(s) of about 10 percent of victims

About 60 percent of stalking by intimate partners started before a relationship ended

A clear relationship existed between stalking and other emotionally controlling and physically abusive behavior. About half of the female stalking victims had been stalked by a current or former marital or cohabiting partner. About 80 percent of these women were, at some point in the relationship, physically assaulted by that partner, and 31 percent were sexually assaulted

Half of all victims reported their stalking to the police. About one- quarter of the women obtained a restraining order--a far greater proportion than men. Eighty percent of all restraining orders were violated by the assailant. About 24 percent of female victims who reported stalking to the police (compared to 19 percent of male victims) said their cases were prosecuted. Of the cases where criminal charges were filed, 54 percent resulted in a conviction. About 63 percent of convictions resulted in jail time.

Although the stalking usually stopped within 1 to 2 years, victims experienced social and psychological consequences long after. About one- third reported they had sought psychological treatment. In addition, 20 percent lost time from work, and 7 percent of those said they never returned to work. When asked why the stalking stopped, about 20 percent of the victims said it was because they moved away. Another 15 percent said it was because of police involvement. Also, stalking of women victims often stopped when the assailant got a new girlfriend or wife.




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Last Updated: May 12, 2011