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Kali Munro Articles

Lesbian Relationships
A Collection of Articles
by lesbian therapist,
Kali Munro.
(PDF Format)

used with permission,
copyright by author

LAMBDA GLBT Community Services

LAMBDA GLBT Community Services

Community United Against Violence

Manalive Website

Offers classes for gay men to help them stop their violence to themselves, their partners and their communities

Stigma and Sexual Orientation : Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

Stigma and Sexual Orientation : Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

Sexuality and the Politics of Violence and Safety

Sexuality and the Politics of Violence and Safety

Sexual Identities, Queer Politics

Sexual Identities,
Queer Politics

Gay And Lesbian Students: Understanding Their Needs

Gay And Lesbian Students: Understanding Their Needs

Lesbian Ex-Lovers: The Really Long-Term Relationships

Lesbian Ex-Lovers: The Really Long-Term Relationships

Feminism, the Family, and the Politics of the Closet: Lesbian and Gay Displacement

Feminism, the Family, and the Politics of the Closet: Lesbian and Gay Displacement

On Intimate Terms: The Psychology of Difference in Lesbian Relationships

On Intimate Terms: The Psychology of Difference in Lesbian Relationships

Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Experiences

Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Experiences

Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships

Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships

When It's Time to Leave Your Lover: A Guide for Gay Men

When It's Time to Leave Your Lover: A Guide for Gay Men

The Power of a Partner: Creating and Maintaining Healthy Gay and Lesbian Relationships

The Power of a Partner:
Creating and Maintaining
Healthy Gay and Lesbian

Training Professionals Who Work With Gays and Lesbians in Educational and Workplace Settings

Training Professionals Who Work With Gays and Lesbians in Educational and Workplace Settings

Strangers to the Law: Gay People on Trial

Strangers to the Law: Gay People on Trial (Law, Meaning and Violence)

Moving On: They Gay Man's Guide for Coping When a Relationship Ends

Moving on: The Gay Man's
Guide for Coping When a
Relationship Ends

Intimate Betrayal: Domestic Violence in Lesbian Relationships

Intimate Betrayal: Domestic Violence in Lesbian Relationships

Every Trick in the Book: The Essential Gay and Lesbian Legal Guide

Every Trick in the Book: The Essential Lesbian and Gay Legal Guide

Domestic Violence in GLBT Couples

Domestic Violence in Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Domestic violence in the GLBT community is a serious issue. The rates of domestic violence in same-gender relationships is roughly the same as domestic violence against heterosexual women. As in opposite-gendered couples, the problem is likely underreported. Facing a system which is often oppressive and hostile towards those who identify as anything other than "straight", those involved in same-gender battering frequently report being afraid of revealing their sexual orientation or the nature of their relationship.

Additionally, even those who attempt to report violence in their alterative relationship run into obsticles. Police officers, prosecutors, judges and others to whom a GLBT victim may turn to for help may have difficulty in providing the same level of service as to a heterosexual victim. Not only might personal attitudes towards the GLBT community come into play, but these providers may have inadequate levels of experience and training to work with GLBT victims and flimsy or non-existant laws to enforce on behalf of the victim.

Although much advancement has been made in the provision of services, the enforcement of the law, and the equality of protections available to those in GLBT relationships over the last decade, it is important for you to be aware of your rights and options as they relate to your attempt to escape an abusive relationship.

Resources for Professionals

A Professional's Guide to Understanding Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence: Understanding Practice Interventions A Professional's Guide to Understanding Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence.

This work far exceeds any published work in breadth and depth on issues related to both gay and lesbian domestic violence. It includes preliminary results of two groundbreaking research projects; includes detailed information on assessment procedures and evaluation instruments, treatment modalities for gay and lesbian victims and batterers, and impact and intervention techniques for children of same-sex couples witnessing domestic violence. The chapter on ethics will assist professionals in specific fields (e. g. nurses, social workers, psychologists) to apply their ethical standards to gay and lesbian couples experiencing domestic violence.

Same-Sex Domestic Violence : Strategies for ChangeSame-Sex Domestic Violence : Strategies for Change

This comprehensive resource book examines a broad range of issues that confront the victims of same-sex domestic violence and those who offer them services.

Chapters include topics of practical concern, HIV, same-sex domestic violence, establishing safe-home networks for battered gay men, courtroom advocacy, coalition building and dating violence prevention.

Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships
Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships

Based on a study of violence in lesbian relationships, this comprehensive book derives from a common theme expressed by the subjects - the sense of having been betrayed, first by their lovers, and subsequently by the lesbian community which tended to deny the problem when the victims sought help. The study's findings are immediately helpful to clinicians working with those battered in lesbian relationships and provides a deeper understanding of lesbian relationship dynamics. Professionals in victimology, gender studies, sociology, psychology, criminology, social work, clinical psychology, counseling, and family studies will not want to miss this brilliant work.

GLBT Domestic Violence: Similarities and Differences

In many ways, domestic violence in lesbian, bisexual and gay relationships is the same as in opposite-gendered (e.g., heterosexually-paired) relationships:

  • No one deserves to be abused.

  • Abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional, psychological, and involve verbal behavior used to coerce, threaten or humiliate.

  • Abuse often occurs in a cyclical fashion.

  • Abuse often occurs and is most dangerous when one partner in a relationship seeks to leave.

  • The purpose of the abuse is to maintain control and power over one's partner.

  • The abused partner feels alone, isolated and afraid, and is usually convinced that the abuse is somehow her or his fault, or could have been avoided if she or he knew what to do.

  • A pattern of violence or behaviors exists where one seeks to control the thoughts, beliefs, or conduct of their intimate partner, or to punish their partner for resisting their control. This may been seen as physical or sexual violence, or emotional and verbal abuse.

On the other side of the coin, several important aspects of GLBT relationships mean domestic violence is often experienced differently.

Emotional abuse for someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual may be to out them at work or to family or friends. See: Lundy, Abuse That Dare Not Speak Its Name: Assisting Victims of Lesbian and Gay Domestic Violence in Massachusetts, 28 New England Law Review 273, Winter 1993.

Local resources for domestic violence in the GLBT community are often scarce and many traditional domestic violence services lack the training, sensitivity, and expertise to adequately recognize and address abusive GLBT relationships. A Queer individual who is being battered must overcome homophobia and denial of the issue of battering. Lesbians, bisexuals and gay men who have been abused have much more difficulty in finding sources of support than heterosexual women who are battered by their male partners.

Here are more ways same-gender domestic violence is unique:

It is frequently incorrectly assumed that lesbian, bi and gay abuse must be "mutual." It is not often seen as being mutual in heterosexual battering.

Victims often believe that in order to use existing services (such as a shelter, attending support groups or calling a crisis line) they must lie or hide the gender of the batterer to be perceived (and thus accepted) as a heterosexual. Or it can mean "coming out", which is a major life decision. If lesbians, bisexuals and gays come out to service providers who are not discreet with this information, it could lead to the victim losing their home, job, custody of children, etc. This may also precipitate local and/or statewide laws to affect some of these changes, depending on the area.

GLBT victims are often not as financially tied to their partner, which can be a benefit if they decide to end the relationship. However, if their lives are financially intertwined, such as each paying a rent or mortgage and having "built a home together", they have no legal process to assist in making sure assets are evenly divided, a process which exists for their married, heterosexual counterparts.

Telling heterosexuals about battering in a GLBT relationship can reinforce the myth many believe that lesbian, bisexual and gay relationships are disfunctional. This can further cause the victim to feel isolated and unsupported. The GLBT community itself is often not supportive of victims of battering because many want to maintain the myth that there are no problems (such as child abuse, alcoholism, domestic violence, etc.) in these relationships. As long as the community continues to put priority in pretending gays and lesbians don't experience abuse, resources will remain scarce, and outreach will continue to suffer. The strange reality is that a vast number of advocates and helping professionals who dedicate themselves to assisting ALL victims of domestic violence, both straight and queer, are themselves gays and lesbians, including the majority of the people who make up OUR organization and publish this very website.

Receiving support services to help one escape a battering relationship is more difficult when there are also oppressions faced. Battered lesbians and female bisexuals automatically encounter sexism and homophobia, and gay and bisexual men encounter homophobia. Lesbian or gay people of color who are battered also face racism. These forms of social oppressions make it more difficult for these groups to get the support needed (legal, financial, social, housing, medical, etc.) to escape and live freely from an abusive relationship.

Lesbian, bi and gay survivors of battering may not know others who are lesbian, bi or gay, meaning that leaving the abuser could result in total isolation.

The GLBT community within the area may be small, and in all likelihood everyone the survivor knows will soon know of their abuse. Sides will be taken and support may be difficult to find. Anonymity is not an option, a characteristic many heterosexual survivors can draw upon in "starting a new life" for themselves within the same city.

Violence and Social Injustice Against Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual PeopleViolence and Social Injustice Against Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People

The author helps you look past the stereotypical picture of violence against sexual minorities--the public physical assaults on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth by hypermasculine male thugs--and directs you towards the many daily acts of quiet violence that go on, unhindered, in the workaday settings of our legal, social, education, and law-enforcement institutions. You'll learn about the frightening prevalence of complacency, homophobic ignorance, and apathy that pervades our police departments, courts, high schools, and churches. Also, armed with this critical insight and statistical research, you'll be better equipped to wage a nonviolent war of fairness and mutual respect against the daily, senseless violence of policy and practice that threatens to render gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people unwelcome and battered citizens in their own communities.

Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Guide for GLBT Singles, Couples and FamiliesGay and Lesbian Rights: A Guide for GLBT Singles, Couples and Families

Gay and Lesbian Legal Rights uses clear language to explain how the law affects you and your loved ones, while emphasizing how to stand up for your rights, use the law to your advantage, find help and understand how to get the results you need under laws that are not always GLBT friendly.

Also includes sections on legal issues surrounding the ending of a domestic partnership or civil union.

No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian RelationshipsNo More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships
Myths: Violence is a male biological trait. When women fight, no one gets seriously hurt. Lesbians don't abuse their spouses. The truth revealed in Janice Ristock's groundbreaking book is that lesbian relationships sometimes do turn violent. Based on interviews with more than one hundred lesbians who have suffered abuse and seventy-five case workers, No More Secrets is the first in-depth account of this startling phenomenon. Although one in four gay and lesbian couples are affected by domestic violence, the problem has remained hidden for several reasons. First is the fear of homophobic backlash should lesbian violence be acknowledged. More significantly, Ristock argues, the lesbian feminist culture has readily adopted the idea that men are more violent than women in order to validate lesbian relationships. Recognizing abuse among lesbians would undermine the cemented belief that domestic abuse is an expression of patriarchy and gender bias. The definitive book on the subject, No More Secrets combines extensive research on the nature of lesbian battering with close-up analysis that will change our understanding of crimes of intimacy in heterosexual and homosexual couples alike. By giving voice to the victims, Ristock helps women to address violence by breaking silences, sharing secrets, and naming the forms of abuse.

Same Sex Domestic Violence: MYTHS

MYTH #1: Only straight women get battered. Men are not victims of domestic violence, and women never batter.

REALITY: Such myths ignore and deny the realities of same-sex relationships. Men can be and are victims of domestic violence. Women can be and are batterers. Domestic violence is fundamentally a power issue. Even when two people are of the same gender, power differences exist and can be abused.

MYTH #2: Domestic violence is more common in straight relationships than it is in same-sex relationships.

REALITY: There is no reason whatsoever to assume that gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) people are less violent than heterosexual men and women. Research on same-sex domestic violence can be difficult, given the fact that many of us are not comfortable being open about our relationships, let alone abusive ones. Research that has been done indicates that battering in same-sex relationships is about as common as in heterosexual relationships. It is increasingly agreed that battering presents one of the most significant health risks to GLBT communities today.

MYTH #3: It really isn't violence when a same-sex couple fights. It's just a lover's quarrel, a fair fight between equals.

REALITY: This is based on the false assumption that two people of the same gender have no power differences. It also ignores that fact that in domestic violence relationships it is the choice of one partner to take advantage of her or his power in abusive ways. There is nothing fair about being knocked against a wall, being threatened, or enduring endless criticism from an angry lover. Dismissing domestic violence as a lover's quarrel trivializes and excuses violence that is just as real, and dangerous, as any in a heterosexual relationship.

MYTH #4: It really isn't violence when gay men fight. It's boys being boys. A man should be able to defend himself.

REALITY: These ideas grow out of a larger societal attitude and the primitive notion that it is acceptable for men to be violent; that it is normal or even appropriately masculine. There is nothing normal or appropriate about domestic violence. The vast majority of men and women are not violent, and the majority of same-sex relationships are free of abuse. 'Boys being boys' may have been harmless (or was it?) on the playground at age six, but when you are adult with injuries inflicted by your lover, it is neither normal nor acceptable.

MYTH #5: The batterer is always bigger, stronger, more 'butch'. Victims will always be smaller, weaker, more feminine.

REALITY: Experience with heterosexual battering and attitudes about traditional sex roles lead many to fall into stereotypes of how batterers and victims, respectively, should look and act. Unfortunately, such stereotypes are of little actual use in helping us to identify who the batterer is in a same-sex relationship. A person who is small, but prone to violence and rage can do a lot of damage to someone who may be taller, heavier, stronger, and non-violent. Size, weight, 'masculinity', 'femininity' or any other physical attribute or role is not a good indicator of whether a person will be a victim or a batterer. A batterer does not need to be 6'1" and built like a rugby player to use a weapon against you, to smash your compact discs, to cut up your clothing, or tell everyone at work that you really are 'queer'.

MYTH #6: Lesbian and Gay domestic violence is sexual behavior, a version of S and M. The victim actually likes it.

REALITY: This myth persists because many people try to define and understand GLBT people exclusively through sexual behavior - AND because they mistakenly assume that the majority of GLBT relationships are based on or include sadomasochistic behaviors (do we assume that anyone who wears a leather jacket owns a Harley and is a member of the Hells Angels?).

Confusing sadomasochism with battering, in either straight or homosexual relationships, keeps us from facing the reality that domestic violence occurs in ALL kinds of relationships, and is not the victim's fault. In consensual sadomasochism or domination scenario, any violence, coercion or domination occurs within the context of a mutually pleasurable 'scene', within which there is trust and/or an agreement between parties about the limits and boundaries of behavior. In contrast, domestic violence takes place without any mutual trust or agreement, and is not consensual or pleasurable for the victim, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. A batterer's violent and coercive behaviors don't just affect the sexual relationship, but pervade other aspects of the relationship as well.

MYTH #7: The law does not and will not protect victims of same sex domestic violence.

First, we must remember that there is a difference between codified laws and the enforcement of those laws. Without a law in place that specifically defines what actions constitute a crime and exactly who can be considered a victim, there is no law in place to BE enforced. In many U.S. states, heterosexuality is not a requirement for protection under abuse prevention laws. Within the last ten years, many states have altered laws to be more gender neutral, affording additional protection to anyone who has been abused or threatened by someone they've lived with or had an intimate dating relationship with, regardless of the gender of either party. Similarly, some very conservative states have gone to great lengths to define that only opposite gendered persons who have been married, lived together or had a child together can be considered "domestic violence victims". Some states fall somewhere in the middle with vast grey areas that don't concretely define one way or the other if victims in homosexual relationships can be protected under domestic violence statues - meaning that it falls to the descretion of law enforcement to take the report, the prosecutor to file the charges and the judge and/or jury to consider the case under domestic violence statutes. From the "law" side then, unless your state statutes clearly provide guidance for law and court personnel, even the most issue-conscious and well-meaning police officers, prosecutors and judges don't have the same statutory ability to take action on behalf of same sex victims of domestic violence under the umbrella of "domestic violence laws" as they have for hetrosexual couples. Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and Hawaii have laws that specifically ALLOW victims in same-sex relationships to get a domestic violence restraining order. Montana, Arizona, New York, Delaware, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Virginia have laws that specifically DENY these victims from receiving a protection order. In Florida, Mississippi and Maryland, laws are unclear but arguably exclude victims of same-sex domestic violence. The other 36 states and the District of Columbia have laws that are gender-neutral and do not specifically include or exclude same-sex relationships.

In more and more cases today, the application of these laws goes smoothly and fairly for victims of same-sex domestic violence. Unfortunately, because of myths detailed here and intolerance among some personnel in the criminal justice system, this is not always true. Some police officers still fail to determine the nature of the relationship between same-sex parties to an assault, and therefore don't even consider applying abuse prevention laws. Others remain hostile or unwilling to recognize the rights of GLBT people. One may also still encounter court personnel or judges who are uncomfortable, unhelpful, or unfair in their treatment of same-sex case. Because of this reality individual victims must make personal decisions, within the context of an overall safety plan, about how and when they will make use of police and court services. This does NOT mean that action cannot be taken - charges and arrests can and do take place, but for individualized crimes such as assault and battery which typically carry lesser sentences and are easier for an abuser to plead out of or have charges dropped altogether.

Make sure to check the wording of the domestic violence statutes in your state and/or contact your local Gay and Lesbian Community program for further information and legal referrals.

MYTH #8: It is easier for lesbian or gay victims of domestic violence to leave the abusive relationship than it is for heterosexual battered women who are married.

REALITY: Same-sex couples are as intertwined and involved in each other's lives as are heterosexual couples. There is no evidence that the absence of children makes leaving a violent partner easier, and same-sex couples can have children as well. The invisibility and relatively limited supports available to victims of same-sex domestic violence may compound barriers to leaving. Many GLBT people lack support from their families and communities, and may not be able to rely on them for help. Victims may also be threatened by their batterers with 'outing' if they attempt to leave an abusive relationship, or convinced that potential helpers will be homophobic and unhelpful.

Woman-To-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It RapeWoman-To-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape?.

A woman raping another woman is unthinkable. This is not how women behave, society tells us. Our legal system is not equipped to handle woman-to-woman sexual assault, our women's services do not have the resources or even the words to reach out to its victims, and our lesbian and gay communities face hurdles in acknowledging its existence. Already dealing with complex issues related to their sexual identities, and frequently overwhelmed by shame, lesbian and bisexual survivors of such violence are among the most isolated of crime victims.

Same Sex Domestic Violence: Research and Statistics

The prevalence of domestic violence among Gay and Lesbian couples is approximately 25 - 33%.
Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 25.

Battering among Lesbians crosses age, race, class, lifestyle and socio-economic lines.
Lobel, ed., Naming the Violence: Speaking Out About Lesbian Battering, 183 (1986).

Each year, between 50,000 and 100,000 Lesbian women and as many as 500,000 Gay men are battered.
Murphy, Queer Justice: Equal Protection for Victims of Same-Sex Domestic Violence, 30 Valparaiso University Law Review. 335 (1995).

While same-sex battering mirrors heterosexual battering both in type and prevalence, its victims receive fewer protections. Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 24.

Seven states define domestic violence in a way that specifically excludes same-sex victims. States with sodomy laws basically require same-sex victims to confess to a crime in order to prove they are in a domestic relationship.
Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 24.

Same-sex batterers use forms of abuse similar to those of heterosexual batterers. they have an additional weapon in the threat of "outing" their partner to family, friends, employers or community.
Lundy, Abuse That Dare Not Speak Its Name: Assisting Victims of Lesbian and Gay Domestic Violence in Massachusetts, 28 New England Law Review 273 (Winter 1993).

Ratner, P. A., Johnson, J. L., Shoveller, J. A., Chan, K., Martindale, S. L., Schilder, A. J., Botnick, M. R., and Hogg, R. S. (2003). "Non-Consensual Sex Experienced by Men who Have Sex with Men: Prevalence and Association with Mental Health." Patient Education and Counseling, 49, 67-74.
The authors obtained completed questionnaires from 358 males between the ages of 19-35 who identify themselves as either gay or bisexual. The study measured prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse, juvenile prostitution, and adult sexual assault. It also identified relationships between alcohol abuse, suicidal ideation and attempts, mood disorders, and poor self-esteem to measure the mental health of participants. The results how that 35% of the men experienced non-consensual sex, 14% were sexually abused as children and the same percentage reported that their first experience of sexual assault occurred when they were 14 years of age or older, and 10% of the men had been involved in juvenile prostitution. The results from this study show that gay and bisexual males do experience sexual assault, therefore, professionals have a responsibility to respond appropriately and effectively to their needs.

Same Sex Domestic Violence: ONLINE ARTICLES

Annual Report on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Domestic Violence 2000
From the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP). This report describes incidents of domestic violence in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community that were reported during the year 2000 to community-based anti-violence organizations in nine regions throughout the U.S.

Center for Homicide Research.
Formerly the Minnesota Gay Homicide Study

Why Do Lesbians Batter?
Rabble, April 2003

Same Sex Partners Not Immune to Abuse
Pioneer Press, Wednesday, October 8, 2003

New Study Shows Urban Gay Men as Likely to be Battered as Heterosexual Women
Groegetown University Medical Center, January 24, 2003

Same Sex Battering Often Goes Unreported
San Antonio Express-News, Saturday, May 17, 2003

Reports of LGBT Domestic Violence on the Rise
GayHealth.com, Wednesday, November 8th 2000

Breaking The Silence: Sociologist Studies Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence
GayHealth.com, Friday, May 25th 2001

The Gay Community's Dirty Secret -- Domestic Violence -- is Finally Coming Out of the Closet
Salon.com, February 27, 1997

Popular News and Magazines

Not So Different, After All by Patricia King. New York, NY: Newsweek, October 4, 1993.

The Violence At Home by Katrin Snow. Los Angeles, CA: The Advocate, June 4, 1992, pp. 60-63.

Battered Husbands--Domestic Violence in Gay Relationships by Michael Szymanski. Los Angeles, CA: Genre Magazine, Fall 1991, pp. 35-37, 44, 73.

The Scourge of Domestic Violence by David Island, PhD. and Patrick Letellier, MA. Gaybook, Issue 9. San Franscisco, CA: Rainbow Ventures, Inc., Winter 1990, pp.11-14.

Battered Lovers--The Hidden Problem of Gay Domestic Violence. Los Angeles, CA: The Advocate, March 4th, 1986, pp.42-46.

When Gays BatterTheir Partners by David Tuller. San Francisco Chronicle, January 3, 1994, pp.1, A8.

Lesbian Battery: Paying the Ultimate Price, by Mindy Ridgeway. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Bay Times, May 5, 1994.

Intimate Abuse: Domestic Violence in Lesbian Relationships by Marissa J. Ventura. Deneuve, July/August 1995, pp. 40-42 (now called Curve Magazine).

Same Sex Domestic Violence: MANUALS

Confronting Homophobia: A Manual for Battered Woman's and Anti-Sexual Assault Programs edited by P. Elliot and J. Guth. St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women, 1990.

Confronting Lesbian Battering edited by P. Elliot. St. Paul: Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women, 1990.

Lesbian and Gay Domestic Violence: A Resource edited and published by Tuscon United Against Domestic Violence, April 1995. Available by contacting The Brewster Center at 510-881-7201.

Same Sex Domestic Violence: Professional Journals and Resources

Gay and Bisexual Domestic Violence Victimization: Challenges to Feminist Theory and Responses to Violence by Patrick Letellier. Violence and Victim, Vol 9, No 2, 1994, pp. 95-106.

ARTICLE: Same-Sex Sexual Violence
Research and Advocacy Digest, Vol 6, No. 1, December 2003 from the Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs. Download is PDF format.

Brown, L. S. (1995). Therapy with Same-Sex Couples: An Introduction. In N. S. Jacobson and A. S. Gurman (Eds.), Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy (pp. 274-291). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Bryant, A. S., and Demian (1994). Relationship Characteristics of American Gay and Lesbian Couples: Findings from a National Survey. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 1(2), 101-117.

Burke, L. K., and Follingstad, D. R. (1999). Violence in Lesbian and Gay Relationships: Theory, Prevalence, and Correlational Factors. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(5), 487-512.

Burke, T., Jordan, M. and Owen, S. (August, 2002). A Cross-National Comparison of Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 231-257.

Cruz, J. M., and Firestone, J. M. (1998). Exploring Violence and Abuse in Gay Male Relationships. Violence and Victims, 13(2), 159-173.

Cruz, J. M., and Peralta, R. L. (2001). Family Violence and Substance Use: The Perceived Effects of Substance Use Within Gay Male Relationships. Violence and Victims, 16(2), 161-172.

Davies, M., Pollard, P., and Archer, J. (2001). The Influence of Victim Gender and Sexual Orientation on Judgments of the Victim in a Depicted Stranger Rape. Violence and Victims, 16(6), 607-619.

Ford, T. M., Liwag-McLamb, M. G., and Foley, L. A. (1998). Perceptions of Rape Based on Sex and Sexual Orientation of Victim. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 13(2), 253-263.

Gardner, R. "Method of Conflict Resolution and Characteristics of Abuse and Victimization in Heterosexual, Lesbian and Gay Male Couples." (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1988) Dissertation Abtracts International, 50, 746B.

Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R., Swanson, C., Swanson, K. R. , Tyson, R., and Yoshimoto, D. (2003a). Observing Gay, Lesbian and Heterosexual Couples' Relationships: Mathematical Modeling of Conflict Interaction. Journal of Homosexuality, 45(1), 65-91.

Gottman, J.M, Levenson, R.W. Gross, J., Fredrickson, B. L. McCoy, K. Rosenthal, L. Ruef, A. and Yoshimoto, D. (2003b). Correlates of gay and lesbian couples' relationship satisfaction and relationship dissolution. Journal of Homosexuality, 45(1), 23-43.

Grossman, A. H., D'Augelli, A. R., and O'Connell, T. S. (2003). Being lesbian, gay, bisexual and sixty or older in North America. In L. Garnets and D. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Experiences (2nd ed., pp. 629-645). New York: Columbia University Press.

Guss, J. (2000). Sex Like You Can't Even Imagine: "Crystal," Crack and Gay Men. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3 , 105-122.

Howard, J. A. (1984a). The 'Normal' Victim: The Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Reactions to Victims. Social Psychology Quarterly 47: 270-281.

Howard, J. A. (1984b). Societal Influences on Attribution: Blaming Some Victims More than Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47: 494-505.

Jablow, P. M. (2000). Victims of Abuse and Discrimination: Protecting Battered Homosexuals Under Domestic Violence Legislation. Hofstra Law Review, 28, 1095-1145.

IPARV (2002). Intimate Partner Abuse and Relationship Violence. Intimate Partner Abuse and Relationship Violence Working Group, American Psychological Association.
See: www.apa.org/pi/iparv.pdf

Johnson, M. P. and Ferraro, K. J. (2000). Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 948-963.

Kurdek, L.A. (1994). The Nature and Correlates of Relationship Quality in Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Cohabiting Couples: A Test of the Individual Difference, Interdependence, and Discrepancy Models. In B. Greene and G.M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Issues (pp. 133-155). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Merrill, G. S. (1998). Understanding Domestic Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men. In R. K. Bergen (Ed.), Issues in Intimate Violence (pp. 129-141). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Merril, G. S., Wolfe, V. A. (2000). Battered Gay Men: An Exploration of Abuse, help Seeking, and Why They Stay. Journal of Homosexuality, 39(2), 1-30.

Murphy, N. E., (1995). Note: Queer Justice: Equal Protection for Victims of Same Sex. Domestic Violence, 30 Valparaiso University Law Review 335, 344.

Peacock, J. R. (2000). Gay Male Adult Development: Some Stage Issues of an Older Cohort. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(2), 13-29.

Sloan, L. M., and Edmond, T. (1996). Shifting the Focus: Recognizing the Needs of Lesbian and Gay Survivors of Sexual Violence. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 5, 4, 33-51.

Turrell, S. C. (2000). A Descriptive Analysis of Same-Sex Relationship Violence for a Diverse Sample. Journal of Family Violence, 15(3), 281-293.

Williamson, T. A. (2000). The Relationship Between Formal Education/Training and the Ability of Psychologists and Marriage and Family Therapists to Assess and Intervene when Counseling with Female Victims of Domestic Violence. (Doctoral Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University, 2000) Dissertation Abstracts, International, Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2000, Oct; Vol 61(4-A); 1311.

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